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Brahmaswom Madhoms and Swaamiyaar Madhoms (Mutts)

According to the Kerala legends, the great Aadi Sankaracharyar achieved his Mahaasamaadhi at Thrissivaperoor (Thrissur) and his Panchabhouthika is at Thrissur Vadakkumnatha Temple where Sanghu Chakra Thara exists. The then Cheramaan Perumaal, Raajasekhara Varma was a Sankara Bhakthan (devotee). He invited the four Sishyas (disciples) of the Aachaarya (some believe that they forecasted the Samaadhi and assembled here by that time). The Perumaal constructed four Mutts on the eastern side of the Padinjare Chira and gave one each to Padmapaada, Thodaka, Sureswara and Hasthamalaka Aachaaryaas, the four disciples. And they in turn gave Samnyaasam to four Namboothiri disciples and thereby originated the Thekke Madhom, Edayil Madhom, Naduvil Madhom and Vadakke Madhom.

It is believed that some modifications in the then Malayala Aacharams were made by the Perumaal after discussions with the Aachaaryans, Vaidikans and Vaidyans assembled at Kollam. "Aachaarya Vagabhedya" is the "Paralpperu" for that day; and that day was the beginning of the new Kerala Era known as "Kolla Varsham" or Malayalam Era. It was in 824 AD.

On the northern side of the Mutt, the "Kotta" of Yogiyar of Vadakkumnatha Temple was existing. The appointment of Yogiyar was by Aazhvaancheri Thampraakkal in the presence of Valluvakkonaathiri, the representative of the king, and the selection was from Ashtagrihathil Aadhyan families by a member of Kirangattu Mana.

All the Rigvedi Namboothiris of Kerala, after "Samaavarthanam", has to undergo a "Bhajanam" at least for one year at Thrissivaperoor Vadakkumnatha Temple, and the Yajurvedi Namboothiris at Thaliparamba Raajasekhara Temple. At Thrissur, Rigvedis assemble at "Bhakthapriya" and at Thaliparamba, Yajurvedis assemble at "Trichambaram". Boys' guardians were Yogiyar (at Thrissur) and Naikkappan at (Thaliparamba). Vaadhyaan was their warden at Thrissur and Pudavoor at Taliparamba (Trichambaram). "Saakhaas" (branches) of the four Mutts were set up at Trichambaram too. Tulu Brahmanans (Uduppi Brahmanans in Karnataka) also adorned some of these mutts at various stages.

While so, the last Vadakke Madhom Swaamiyaar, who was a Sivolly Tulu Nambi (Brahmanan) in his Poorvaasramam (life before sainthood) due to a mutual curse between the then Perumpadappu Vaidikan and the Swaamiyaar followed by the subsequent request of his mother that he should not give Samnyaasam to any one else, dedicated all the assets of Vadakke Madhom except Trichambaram Padinjaare Mutt to the then Chaangaliyodu Vaadhyaan for the expansion of the study of Rigvedam. While he was residing at Trichambaram Padinjare Mutt, the great Swaamiyaar with an idea to go to Kaasi, went up to Kasargod, and the milkmaid family residing there requested him to stay at Vishnumangalath Temple existing there during the "Chaathurmaasya". When he began to proceed to Kaasi after the Chaathurmaasya, they and the "Saanthikkar" families requested him to stay there permanently. The milkmaid families dedicated some properties to him and the Saanthikkars promised all their help for his stay. With the assistance of that Swaamiji, samnyaasam was obtained by a member of that family and thus the Edneer Mutt at Kasargod was started.

The period of those incidents were not recorded. Some say that the Vilwamangalath Swaamiyaar of Naduvil Mutt gave the Samnyaasam to the Sishya. Subsequently at about 1060 to 1070 of the Malayalam Era, one Kizhiniprathu Swaamiyaar of Thrikkaikkattu Mutt also has to give the Samnyaasam to that Edneer Mutt. There are 12 Bhoomidaan Vrindaavans there and more than ten generations through "dathu" (adoption) is over in Perumpadappu Vaidika family. Whether the formation of Brahmaswom Madhom was before the division of Thirunavaya Yogam from the Thrissur Yogam or subsequent to the division, is not clear. Melpathur Bhattapaada belonged to Thirunaavaaya Yogam and his period can be ascertained from the "paralpperu", "Aayuraarogya Soukhyam", as ME 762 Vrischikam 28. It was on this day that Melpathur Bhattathiri completed his work, "Naaraayaneeyam".

When the Samoothiri of Kozhikode was powerful, he wanted to have a Swaamiyaar in his territory. He dedicated the Thikkaikkattuu Mutt to the then Mooppil Swaamiyaar of Edayil Mutt and persuaded him to shift the Madhom to Thrikkaikkattu and thereafter that Mutt was known as Thrikkaikkattu Madhom. Fearing that it may again shift to Thrissur, its Mutt at Thrissur was given to Thekke Madhom and Thekke Mutt's Madhom at Trichambaram was given to Thrikkaikkattu Madhom. Now there is no property for Edayil Mutt at Thrissur and for Thekke Mutt at Trichambaram. The Padinjare Madhom at Trichambaram is with the Ednur Mutt. Only the northern varandah of the old Thekke Mutt is preserved as a monument.

So also when Marthanda Varma, the founder of Travancore upto Periyar was powerful, the Kulasekhara Perumal also wanted to have a Swaamiyaar in his territory. He dedicated the Munchira Madhom to an Elamura Swaamiyaar of Thrikkaikkattu Mutt with the assistance of the then Eralpad and laid the foundation of the Munchira Mutt.

There is a daily Swaamiyaar Pushpaanjali at Sree Padmanabha Temple. For that purpose, two Mutts were constructed at Mithranandapuram on the western side of the Padmanabhaswaamy Temple and the western Mutt was given to Naduvil Mutt and eastern Mutt to Munchira Mutt.

At Thiruvaarpu also, there is daily Pushpaanjali and for that purpose, the Thekke Madhom has a Mutt there. So also, Munchira Mutt has a Mutt at Avittathoor in Irinjalakuda and Thrikkaikkattu Mutt has a Mutt at Kottayam Thirunakkara. There were temples under the management of the Mutts of Munchira on the south and of Chirakkal on the north, so that, their Highnesses could move from one to the other by walk, after Madhyaahnika and Bhiksha and before the Saayanthana Sandhyakaryas. Now there is only one Swaamiyaar in each Mutt, except in the Thekke Mutt. And in the Keezhedom Mutts, except at Thiruvaarpu, there are no Swaamiyaars at present.

In 1758 AD, the then Samoothiri attacked Thrissur, interfering in the Mooppu disputes of the Cochin Royal family. The Vaadhyaan of Brahmaswom Madhom and the Thrissivaperoor Yogakkars supported the Cochin Maharaja, and under the leadership of Perattupuram, caused heavy loss to the army of the Samoothiri. The Samoothiri defeated them, arrested and brought the Vaadhyaan before him. To the question whenever his loyalty is still towards Cochin, the Vaadhyaan boldly replied:

"Madakshoma Ramana bahubelabhi-guptha
Seyam sabha Paravasethi na chinthaneeya
Ekakinee nisicharalaya samsthithapi
Kim Ramachandra dayitha Dasakandhamapa"
Pleased with the simile in the stanza and the boldness of Vaadhyaan, he was ordered to be let free returning the full management and assets of the Madhom.

Later the defeat of the Samoothiri at Mapranam by the Travancore army under Ayyappan Marthanda Pillai, Thrissur was re-captured by Cochin and the then Sakthan Thampuran ordered Vaadhyaan to remove the Yogiyar from the "kotta" and take it over for the Madhom. Thereafter, the Madhom flourished rapidly and Kadavalloor Anyonyam made the study of Rigvedam at Thrissur and Thirunavaya progress with sportsman's spirit.

In 1915 AD, disputes started between the Vaadhyaan and the Yogakkar. Though the administration bye-laws were passed, the next Vaadhyaan did not accept the same, and using that opportunity, the Government took over the management and that continued upto 1949. In 1930 - 31, apart from the higher studies in Pada, Jata, Rattha and Samhitha were also taught. The Namboothiri Vidyaalayam started at Edakkunni in 1919 was first shifted to Bhakthapriyath in 1923. The Madhom paid Rs. 30,000 for shifting the same to the present plot in 1928 and the students after Samhitha were allowed to sit for the examination of sixth standard, and if passed, were allowed to study there during school hours, and to continue higher studies in Vedam at the Madhom during early morning hours and after 5pm. Thirunavaya Brahmaswom Madhom is also for RigvVedis. There is one Brahmaswom Mutt called "Chakrakshalanapuram" at Thiruvalla for the Sagara Dwijas for Yejus, another at Irinjalakkuda (which alone is functioning now) and yet another called "Kanjeepuram" at Thiruvananthapuram. Chengalam Brahmaswom Madhom was also in existence.

| Article No:4.4 | Last update of this article:14th September 2000 |
Article prepared by: Adv. B.Agnisarman Namboodiri, Athrassery Mana.

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